出世与入世

林钰堂



目 录
一、不在表相
二、需要交融
三、照顾根本
四、谨守分际


佛法明示「不着于相、融通空有」,故知出世与入世亦相对之分别,应当通权达变,加以调和。入世弘出世法,出世行入世事,又有何可何不可?只在乎一心净不净。

在理论上虽然必需彻见究竟圆融,在实践上则往往因为环境太复杂,一涉交融即沦为难以自拔,故有就出世与入世详加解析之必要,以救护有心以佛法理念济世,而不明如何着手为宜之善士。

一、不在表相

出世与入世之分,不在表相。心有执着,虽一生离俗专修,难出轮回,仍属世间。本着慈悲,虽经营事业于人间,不忘随缘接引,仍可成就化渡。入深山植林,利益不见于当前之世间。安于胯下之辱,方得一展雄才于将来;志士济世岂汲汲于一时之表现。不论出世、入世以行救济皆当弘毅自任,自强不息以务实,以达长远之安乐。

二、需要交融

欲提倡正觉之修行,固宜先离俗专修以达开悟,而后法化天下,普济含识,然而开悟之彻底岂可不经世事之考验?法化之风行岂能出乎不明世情之教导?故出世必经入世之磨鍊而证悟;出世正为入世以振醒群迷。释迦牟尼在菩提树下先经魔考而后证悟;证觉后弘化四方而非独隐于深密之处。

欲就世间而致力维护公理、正义与和平,固需孜孜于斯,不舍昼夜,然而本身若无超出世间名利之见识与修养,安能庄敬自持,履尘无染?佛法之慈悲普及一切有情,平等爱护,而于一切法,教示彻底之无着、无贪,在行事之活用上,又有「不住于相」之开导,诚为入世服务者最佳之修养途径。

若有出世、入世之分,罣碍于心,则无法彻证本来,亦难以随缘接引,适时应机。正因能假世法申明佛法旨意,能用佛法以增进世间安乐,而成就真空妙有、二谛圆融的大用。故知出世、入世需要交融。

三、照顾根本

虽曰出世、入世需要交融,但在实际修行与操守上,此等圆融活用,岂是易事?若无细检本心、坚守本净之能力,所谓圆融难免成为老油条浑水摸鱼之藉口。故当明瞭出世、入世分际之根本,而以照顾根本为当务之急。宁可死守根本而受人讥讽为不能圆融,不可徒号圆融而沦为同流合污,无以自拔!

出世、入世之根本分别在于用心是否超越时空之限制而及于一切有情之彻底解脱,证入正觉。一般世间之事业虽可间接为此根本目标之助缘,然而一旦涉入,往往如漩涡之愈卷愈深,终致失去远大目标而唯注目于当前之利害得失。在实际上,为了保持出世之长远目标及利益,甚至不得不避免涉及世间事务,以免因种种缠缚而失去人间一片心灵的净地及晴空。

释迦牟尼证觉后,并未回国接掌王位以福利子民,亦未曾提倡种姓平等之社会革命,只是对所有众生皆施以佛法之教化,并树立佛法超越世法之轨范。(不论出身,而以先入佛门者为尊长。)玄奘大师屡辞唐太宗佐政之命,而以弘法为终身之职志。耶稣不为有心政治者所惑,不因群众公认为「救世主」而介入以色列人之革命建国运动。古圣先贤岂不顾人民当前之利乐?何以必于世法之外,另行出世之救济?若非着眼千秋万世,普及四海之滨,何能忍受当前生民之涂炭?正因世法之缠缚太深,非一般人所能脱出,故需提倡出离、专修,以照顾根本,以护持菩提种子及正觉教化于多苦多难的世间。

四、谨守分际

世间问题丛生,固需吾人之参预与经营以匡正时弊,普利群生。然而共业之复杂与积弊,并非少数人依理想之尺度大声疾呼、严加批判即可厘清。更何况世间有不按牌理出牌之人,即自然有不按牌理加以修理之对治,非任何人所能强制规范。长远的根本解救之道,还是在于弘扬佛法所教示之无常、无执与慈悲开阔。由人心之开悟方能维护真正之和平与公义。若试图以世法救世,除了增加局势之复杂性,并无可以确保之善果。

尝见有出世职务者发表关于政治之言论,不是流于空洞之理想,即是本着个人之处世哲学或人际关系而无关于国计民生。隔行如隔山;若能谨守出世职务之分际,岂非更能专精道业而安定人心?

于出世、入世难以融通之分际,吾人当何以自处?学佛者似应效法本师释迦牟尼佛之典范,而有明确之抉择!

                       一九九五年九月十九日
                       养和斋    于加州


 

  出世与入世                    林钰堂
In and Out of Worldly Ways          Yutang Lin

  佛法明示「不着于相、融通空有」,故知出世与入世亦相对之分别,应当通权达变,加以调和。入世弘出世法,出世行入世事,又有何可何不可?只在乎一心净不净。
Dharma clearly teaches that one should not grasp to appearances, but harmonize Blank Essence and phenomena. Therefore, we know that in and out of worldly ways are also relative distinctions, and that one should comprehend skillful means to match variations so as to harmonize everything. Propagating Dharma that is out of worldly ways in the worldly realms, and staying out of worldly realms to carry out activities that are in the worldly ways, these are beyond questions on what should or should not be done. It all depends on whether the mind is completely pure or impure.

  在理论上虽然必需彻见究竟圆融,在实践上则往往因为环境太复杂,一涉交融即沦为难以自拔,故有就出世与入世详加解析之必要,以救护有心以佛法理念济世,而不明如何着手为宜之善士。
Even though in theory one should comprehend thoroughly that ultimately all matters are harmonized in oneness, in deeds it is often the case that due to multiple complexities of the situations, as soon as one steps into harmonization of matters in and out of worldly ways, one is trapped helplessly into mires. Hence, it is necessary to provide a detail analysis on "in and out of worldly ways" so as to help safeguard good people who intend to save the world through Buddhist ideals and yet not realizing how would be proper to approach the task.

一、不在表相
A.Not in Appearance

  出世与入世之分,不在表相。心有执着,虽一生离俗专修,难出轮回,仍属世间。本着慈悲,虽经营事业于人间,不忘随缘接引,仍可成就化渡。入深山植林,利益不见于当前之世间。安于胯下之辱,方得一展雄才于将来;志士济世岂汲汲于一时之表现。不论出世、入世以行救济皆当弘毅自任,自强不息以务实,以达长远之安乐。
The distinction between matters in and out of worldly ways does not lie in appearance. With grasping in mind, even though one spends the whole life living in seclusion to engage in Dharma practices, one still can hardly transcend transmigration in the worldly realms, and hence it is still in worldly ways. Based on compassion, even though one manages businesses in society, one does not forget to build bridges to Dharma for suitable people encountered, then one may still accomplish conversion to Dharma. Entering into deep mountains to plant forests, the benefits cannot be seen by the concurrent world. Be tolerant with humiliation at present so as to be able to demonstrate one's capabilities in the future; how could a person aspired to offer services to the world be concerned with performance at one time. Be it in or out of worldly ways, to offer public services one should sustain a broad and open mind, remain constant throughout, and remain diligent in engaging in concrete deeds, so as to achieve beneficial results in the long run.

二、需要交融
B. Need to Harmonize

  欲提倡正觉之修行,固宜先离俗专修以达开悟,而后法化天下,普济含识,然而开悟之彻底岂可不经世事之考验?法化之风行岂能出乎不明世情之教导?故出世必经入世之磨鍊而证悟;出世正为入世以振醒群迷。释迦牟尼在菩提树下先经魔考而后证悟;证觉后弘化四方而非独隐于深密之处。
To propagate practices that will lead to right enlightenment it is certainly suitable to first renounce worldly ways for devoted Dharma practices so as to attain enlightenment, and then spread Dharma teachings throughout the world to help all sentient beings equally; nevertheless, how could thorough enlightenment be accomplished without going through the testing of worldly matters? How could the propagation of Dharma throughout the world be accomplished by guidance based on being ignorant of the worldly matters? Therefore, enlightenment out of worldly ways must go through trials and trainings in worldly ways; the goal of practicing out-of-worldly ways is squarely aiming at entering the world to awaken the deluded multitude. Under the Bodhi tree Sakyamuni first passed the testing of devils before he attained full enlightenment; after his awakening he traveled to many places to spread the teachings instead of staying alone in seclusion in remote areas.

  欲就世间而致力维护公理、正义与和平,固需孜孜于斯,不舍昼夜,然而本身若无超出世间名利之见识与修养,安能庄敬自持,履尘无染?佛法之慈悲普及一切有情,平等爱护,而于一切法,教示彻底之无着、无贪,在行事之活用上,又有「不住于相」之开导,诚为入世服务者最佳之修养途径。
In order to sustain universal ideals, justice and peace in the world one needs to work on it constantly, day in and day out, and yet unless one possesses views and characters that transcend worldly considerations of profits and fames, how could one then keep one's conducts pure and free from worldly pollutions? Compassion as taught in Dharma is universal to all sentient beings, and looks after all beings equally, and in all Buddhist teachings thorough and complete freedom from attachment and greed is propounded; furthermore, as to lively application of Dharma in daily activities, it is taught that one should not be confined by formality. Cultivation according to Dharma is indeed the best path for people who try to render public services to the world.

  若有出世、入世之分,罣碍于心,则无法彻证本来,亦难以随缘接引,适时应机。正因能假世法申明佛法旨意,能用佛法以增进世间安乐,而成就真空妙有、二谛圆融的大用。故知出世、入世需要交融。
If one grasps to the distinction between in and out of worldly ways, then one could not thoroughly attain the original state which is beyond duality, and it will also be difficult to convert beings to Dharma according to suitable timing and situations. Precisely due to the fact that one can reveal the essential significance of Dharma through worldly ways, and apply Dharma to increase peace and happiness in the world, that the great function of Dharma in harmonizing Blank Essence and phenomena, and in harmonizing worldly ways and transcendental ways, may be accomplished. Thus, it is clear that matters in and out of worldly ways need be harmonized.

三、照顾根本
C. Looking after the Root

  虽曰出世、入世需要交融,但在实际修行与操守上,此等圆融活用,岂是易事?若无细检本心、坚守本净之能力,所谓圆融难免成为老油条浑水摸鱼之藉口。故当明瞭出世、入世分际之根本,而以照顾根本为当务之急。宁可死守根本而受人讥讽为不能圆融,不可徒号圆融而沦为同流合污,无以自拔!
Even though in theory one need to harmonize matters in and out of worldly ways, nevertheless, in actual practices and activities it is never an easy task to lively harmonize them with one's character still remaining pure. If one is incapable of carefully reflecting on one's own intentions and thoughts, and sustaining steadfastly one's original purity, then the so-called "harmonization" will simply become an excuse for experienced worldling to play around so as to fool others. Therefore, we should understand clearly the root of the boundary between matters in and out of worldly ways, and then take looking after this root as the most urgent priority. One rather grasps to this root steadfastly to the extent that one is ridiculed as being incapable of harmonization than to be recognized as being able to practice harmonization and yet indeed have deteriorated into mixing with the polluted multitude to the extent of being unable to self-extract from the mire.

  出世、入世之根本分别在于用心是否超越时空之限制而及于一切有情之彻底解脱,证入正觉。一般世间之事业虽可间接为此根本目标之助缘,然而一旦涉入,往往如漩涡之愈卷愈深,终致失去远大目标而唯注目于当前之利害得失。在实际上,为了保持出世之长远目标及利益,甚至不得不避免涉及世间事务,以免因种种缠缚而失去人间一片心灵的净地及晴空。
The fundamental distinction between matters in and out of worldly ways lies in whether one's intentions are beyond the limitations of space and time and are related to the ultimate liberation from transmigration and the attainment of right enlightenment for all sentient beings. Even though ordinary worldly endeavors may serve indirectly as helpful means toward this fundamental goal, nevertheless, once one is engaged in worldly endeavors it is often the case that one becomes entangled in a whirlpool that drags one down ever deeper, and eventually one will lose sight of the long-term grand goal but instead pay attention only to the gains and losses in front. In reality, in order to sustain the long-term goal and benefits of transcendental approaches, one couldn't help but avoid engagement in worldly matters lest one will lose a pure land and sunny sky of mind due to all sorts of entanglements in worldly matters.

  释迦牟尼证觉后,并未回国接掌王位以福利子民,亦未曾提倡种姓平等之社会革命,只是对所有众生皆施以佛法之教化,并树立佛法超越世法之轨范。(不论出身,而以先入佛门者为尊长。)玄奘大师屡辞唐太宗佐政之命,而以弘法为终身之职志。耶稣不为有心政治者所惑,不因群众公认为「救世主」而介入以色列人之革命建国运动。古圣先贤岂不顾人民当前之利乐?何以必于世法之外,另行出世之救济?若非着眼千秋万世,普及四海之滨,何能忍受当前生民之涂炭?正因世法之缠缚太深,非一般人所能脱出,故需提倡出离、专修,以照顾根本,以护持菩提种子及正觉教化于多苦多难的世间。
After Sakyamuni attained enlightenment he did not return to his country to resume the throne so as to provide welfare to his subjects, and he also did not advocate social revolution to abolish the caste strata. Instead, he simply imparted Dharma teachings to all beings equally, and established the norm that Dharma transcends worldly customs. (Seniority in Buddhism is determined by the order in time of taking refuge, instead of by caste status.) Ven. Xuan Zhang repeatedly declined invitations from Emperor Tai Zong of Tang Dynasty to serve as prime minister for the government, but instead chose to devote his whole life to the propagation of Dharma. Jesus was not deluded by people with political ambitions; he did not engage in social revolution to establish a Jewish state even though he was recognized by the multitude as the Messiah. How could these ancient saints not be concerned with the temporal welfare of the multitude? Why did they, instead of providing worldly services, choose to save the world in out-of-worldly ways? If they did not have in mind the universal and everlasting salvation of all beings, how could they tolerate the contemporary sufferings of the multitude and not rush to provide temporary relief? Precisely because the entanglements of worldly affairs are too strong and deep for ordinary people to escape from, so we need to advocate renunciation of worldly engagements and devotion to Dharma practices so as to look after the root, to sustain Bodhi seeds, and to propagate teachings on right enlightenment in this world full of sorrows and hardships.

四、谨守分际
D.Carefully Staying within the Boundary

  世间问题丛生,固需吾人之参预与经营以匡正时弊,普利群生。然而共业之复杂与积弊,并非少数人依理想之尺度大声疾呼、严加批判即可厘清。更何况世间有不按牌理出牌之人,即自然有不按牌理加以修理之对治,非任何人所能强制规范。长远的根本解救之道,还是在于弘扬佛法所教示之无常、无执与慈悲开阔。由人心之开悟方能维护真正之和平与公义。若试图以世法救世,除了增加局势之复杂性,并无可以确保之善果。
Problems in the world are ever recurring in all areas of human existence, and they certainly call for our participation and management to fix the contemporary problems so as to help all beings universally. However, the complexity and accumulated faults of our common karma cannot be rectified just by a few people's propagation of and criticism according to some ideal standards. Not to mention that there are people in the world who do not play by the rules, and hence there are also counter measures that are not by the rules, and hence no one can really regulate matters strictly by rules. In the long run the way of fundamental salvation still lies in propagation of Impermanence, Freedom from Grasping, Open-mindedness and Compassion as taught in the Dharma. Genuine safeguard of peace and justice can only be achieved by universal comprehension of their values. If we try to save the world through worldly ways, besides adding complexity to the situations, there are no guaranteed good results that will certainly come forth.

  尝见有出世职务者发表关于政治之言论,不是流于空洞之理想,即是本着个人之处世哲学或人际关系而无关于国计民生。隔行如隔山;若能谨守出世职务之分际,岂非更能专精道业而安定人心?
Sometimes we see people carrying clergy responsibilities publicize political opinions, and those views are either unrealistic ideals or based on personal philosophy or relations, and yet lacking relevance to solution of real problems in the society. People in different trades are as remote from one another as being separated by mountains; if they could carefully abide by the boundary of transcendental duties, wouldn't it be easier for them to concentrate on their religious services so as to help pacify people's minds?

  于出世、入世难以融通之分际,吾人当何以自处?学佛者似应效法本师释迦牟尼佛之典范,而有明确之抉择!
At the juncture of having difficulty in harmonizing matters that are in and out of worldly ways, how should one conduct oneself? As a Buddhist one should follow the epitome as set by Sakyamuni Buddha and make a distinctive choice!

                      
Written in Chinese on September 19, 1995
Translated on December 24, 2013
El Cerrito, California


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